Technische Literatur

über physikalischen Kalkschutz

mit Permanent-Magnettechnik

 

Die Forschung war lange Zeit im Rückstand bei der wissenschaftlichen Erklärung der physikalischen Veränderungen von Flüssigkeiten und Gase durch starke Magnetfelder

Die Forscher an Universitäten - besonders im deutschsprachigen Raum - wollten die erstaunliche Wirkung von starken Magnet-Felder auf Flüssigkeiten und Gase wie z.B. Wasser, Heizöl, Dieselkraftstoff, Benzin und Erdgas lange Zeit nicht wahrhaben, weil sie die Abläufe chemisch und physikalisch nicht nachvollziehen konnten. Diese Forschungslücke wurde in den letzten 50 Jahren von bekannten Forschern an Universitäten und technischen Hochschulen teilweise geschlossen. Allerdings bestehen immer noch einige Forschungslücken, weil Wasser in seiner Zusammensetzung von Ort zu Ort wechselt und der positive Effekt von Magnet-felder punkto Kalkablagerungen sowohl auf chemische wie auch physikalische Effekte zurückzuführen ist und sehr komplex sind. Aus diesem Grunde gibt es verschiedenste wissenschaftliche Erklärungen, unter welchen Bedingugnen und warum der Kalkschutzeffekt bei der magnetischen Wasserbehandlung eintritt. Für den Anwender der mit dem magnoto-physikalishen Verfahren seine Kalkprobleme lösen will, spielen sind solche Erklärungsprobleme der Forscher bedeutungslos, solange er in der praktischen Anwendung bei der Wasserkon-ditionierung die Kalkschutz Wirkung erzielt werden kann.

Die Wirkung der Magnetkraft (Ionisation)als Mittel gegen harte Kalkablagerungen im Kalt- und Warmwassersystem von Gebäuden und Industrieanlagen ist heute eindeutig nachgewiesen

Im Nachstehenden einen Literatur Hinweis auf interessante Studien und Artikel in der wissenschaftlichen Fachliteratur, welche die Einwirkung von Magnetfelder auf Flüssigkeiten und Gase eindeutig mit praktischen Versuchen und mit theoretischen Modellen der Quanten Lehre belegen und begründen. Angesichts dieser soliden praktischen und theoretischen Beweislage über die festgestellten Wirkung von Magnetfelder können auch die grössten Skeptiker die Effekte der "physikalischen" Wasser- und Treibstoffaufbereitung" nicht mehr verneinen ohne Gefahr zu laufen, sich als Wissenschafter oder Forscher ins wissenschaftliche Abseits zu stellen. In deutscher Sprache gibt es nur wenige wissenschaftliche Arbeiten, dafür viele, die in englischer Sprache veröffentlicht worden sind. Wir fügen nachstehend die von uns gefundenen auf:

 

 

Author(en)

 

 

Titel der Publikation

Prof. Dr.D. Frahne

"Physikalische Wasseraufbereitung

- Der Schleier wird durchsichtig"

www.ikz.de/art_0695/9506232.htm

 

 

Prof. Heinz H. Baumann

 

"Physikalische Wasserbehandlung"

IKZ-Haustechnik, Ausgabe 9/1996, Seite

67 ff.

www.ikz.de/art_0996/9609067.htm

 

 

Wirtschaftsjournal für Sanitär und Heizung Nr. 11 (1995) Seite 54.

 

 

Elektrostatische Wasserbehandlung.

"Das ,Wie' scheint geklärt, das ,Warum' noch nicht".

 

K. Olbrich und R. Wögerbauer:

 

Haustechnische Rundschau 4/93

" Und sie funktioniert doch". (Mit Literaturangaben).

 

R. Wögerbauer: Sanitär-Heizung- und Klimatechnik, sbz (1993) ".

 

 

"Elektrostatische Wasserbehandlung

 

"Wirksam gegen Kalk und Rost"

www.ikz.de/art_2495/9524048.htm

 

 

Viel reichhaltiger ist die Litteratur in englischer Sprache über die Wirkung von Magnetfelder auf Kalk im Wasser :

 

 

"Influence of magnetic field on the aragonite precipitation"

L.C. Lipusa, , and D. Dobersekba
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia

Bruns, S. A., V. I. Klassen, and A. K. Konshina. 1966. Change in the extinction of light by water after treatment in a magnetic field. Kolloidn. Zh. 28: 153-155.

Busch, K. W., M. A. Busch, D. H. Parker, R. E. Darling, and J. L. McAtee, Jr. 1986. Studies of a water treatment device that uses magnetic fields. Corrosion 42 (4): 211-221.

Busch, K. W., M. A. Busch, R. E. Darling, S. Maggard, and S. W. Kubala. 1997. Design of a test loop for the evaluation of magnetic water treatment devices. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers 75 (Part B): 105-114.

Chechel, P. S., and G. V. Annenkova. 1972. Influence of magnetic treatment on solubility of calcium sulphate. Coke Chem. USSR. 8: 60-61.

Daly, J. 1995. Miracle cure. Motor Boating and Sailing. October, p. 36.

Denver, E., executive ed. 1996. Magnets that don't do much to soften water. Consumer Reports. February, p. 8.

Donaldson, J. D. 1988. Magnetic treatment of fluids -- preventing scale." Finishing. 12: 22-32.

Duffy, E. A. 1977. Investigation of Magnetic Water Treatment Devices. Ph.D. dissertation, Clemson University, Clemson, S.C.

Gehr, R., Z. A. Zhai, J. A. Finch, and S. R. Rao. 1995. Reduction of soluble mineral concentrations in CaSO4 saturated water using a magnetic field. Wat. Res. 29 (3): 933-940.

Harrison, J. 1993. WQA Glossary of Terms. Water Quality Association. Lisle, Ill.

Hasson, D., and D. Bramson. 1985. Effectiveness of magnetic water treatment in suppressing CaCO3 scale deposition. Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 24: 588-592.

Higashitani, K., and J. Oshitani. 1997. Measurements of magnetic effects on electrolyte solutions by atomic force microscope. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers 75 (Part B): 115-119.

Joshi, K. M., and P. V. Kamat. 1966. Effect of magnetic field on the physical properties of water. J. Ind. Chem. Soc. 43: 620-622.

Klassen, V. I. 1981. Magnetic treatment of water in mineral processing. In Developments in Mineral Processing, Part B, Mineral Processing. Elsevier, N.Y., pp. 1077-1097.

Kronenberg, K. J. 1985. Experimental evidence for effects of magnetic fields on moving water. IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, vol. Mag-21, no. 5: 2059-2061.

Krylov, O. T., I. K. Vikulova, V. V. Eletskii, N. A. Rozno, and V. I. Klassen. 1985. Influence of magnetic treatment on the electro-kinetic potential of a suspension of CaCO3. Colloid J. USSR 47: 820-824.

Liburkin, V. G., B. S. Kondratev, and T. S. Pavlyukova. 1986. Action of magnetic treatment of water on the structure formation of gypsum. Glass and Ceramics (English translation of Steklo I Keramika) 1: 101-105.

Lin, I., and Y. Yotvat. 1989. Electro-magnetic treatment of drinking and irrigation water. Water and Irrigation Rev. 8:16-18.

Lipus, L., J. Krope, and L. Garbai. 1994. Magnetic water treatment for scale prevention. Hungarian J. Ind. Chem. 22: 239-242.

Marshall, S. V,. and G. G. Skitek 1987. Electromagnetic Concepts and Applications. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Martynova, O. I., E. F. Tebenekhin, and B. T. Gusev. 1967. Conditions and mechanism of deposition of the solid calcium carbonate phase from aqeuous [sic] solutions under the influence of a magnetic field. Colloid J. USSR 29: 512-514.

McNeely, M. 1994. Magnetic fuel treatment system designed to attack fuel-borne microbes. Diesel Progress Engines and Drives. November, p. 16.

Mirumyants, S. O., E. A. Vandyukov, and R. S. Tukhvatullin. 1972. The effect of a constant magnetic field on the infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water. Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 46: 124.

Parsons, S. A., S. J. Judd, T. Stephenson, S. Udol, and B.-L. Wang. 1997. Magnetically augmented water treatment. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers 75 (Part B): 98-104.

Raisen, E. 1984. The control of scale and corrosion in water systems using magnetic fields. Corrosion 84. Conference proceedings, Nat. Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers, Houston, paper no. 117.

Singley, J. E. 1984. Municipal water treatment. In Kirk-Othmer Encyl. of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed. Edited by Martin Grayson. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Vol. 24, pp. 385-406.

Skripka, N. I., A. A. Litvinov, and I. G. Tretyakov. 1975. Influence of operational factors on oxidizability of liquid hydrocarbons. Operational Properties of Fuels, Lubricants and Technical Liquids Used in Civil Aviation [Kiev] 1: 11-14. [In Russian.]

Spear, M. 1992. The growing attraction of magnetic treatment. Process Engineering. May, p. 143.

Tretyakov, I. G., M. A., Rybak, and E. Yu. Stepanenko. 1985. Method of monitoring the effectiveness of magnetic treatment for liquid hydrocarbons. Sov. Surf. Eng. Appl. Electrochem. 6: 80-83.

Tretyakov, I. G., E. S. Denisov, and A. N. Solovev. 1975. Effects of magnetic field treatment on electrophysical properties of aviation fuels. Operational Properties of Fuels, Lubricants and Technical Liquids Used in Civil Aviation [Kiev] 1: 41-42. [In Russian.]

Welder, B. Q., and E. P. Partridge. 1954. Practical performance of water-conditioning gadgets. Ind. Eng. Chem. 46: 954-960.

Wilkes, J. F., and R. Baum. 1979. Water conditioning devices -- an update. Int. Water Conf.: 40th Annual Meeting, paper no. IWC-79-20.

Wang.Y e al:

Magnetic water treatment for scale prevention. Was. Res, 3249 - 3259 - 2001

WQA Magnetics Task Force Report. The Water Quality Association, März 2001

Weitere Forscher, die sich mit der Wirkung von Magnetfelder auf Wasser befasst haben:

A.F. Porter, U.S. Patent No. 50,774, October 31, 1865.

J.C.Cowanand D.J. Weintritt, Water-Formed Scale Deposits, Gulf, Houston, 1976.

A.T.Hay, U.S. Patent No. 140,196, June 24, 1873.

C.E. Gruber and D.D. Carda, Performance analysis of permanent magnet type water treatment devices,

Final Report issued to the Water Quality Association, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 1981.

K.W. Busch, M.A. Busch, J.L. McAtee, Jr., R.E.

Darling, and D.H. Parker, Evaluation of the

Principles of Magnetic Water Treatment, American

Petroleum Institute Publication 960, Washington,DC, 1985.

V.G. Levich, Soviet Physics, USPEKHI, 9 (1966) 316.

R. Eliassen, R.T. Skrinde, and W.B. Davis, J. Am.

Water Works Assoc., 50 (1958) 1371.

J.E. Alleman, Quantitative Assessment of the Effectiveness of Permanent Magnetic Water

Conditioning Devices, Final Report issued to the Water Quality Association, Purdue University, 1985.

G.J.C. Limpert and J.L. Raber, Tests of NonChemical ScaleControl Devices in a Once-Through

System,"CORROSION/85,National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Boston, Massachusetts, Paper

No. 250, 1985.

D. Hasson and D. Bramson, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 24 (1985) 588. O. S6hnel and J. Mullin, Chem. Ind. (London), (1988) 356.

J.F. Grutsch and J.W. McClintock, Controlling Scale by Magnetic Treatment, Report submitted to the American Petroleum Institute, Committee on

Refinery Environmental Conservation, American

Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, 1982.

K. W. Busch, M.A. Busch~Desalination 109 (1997) 131-148 147

J.F.Grutsch and J.W. McClintock, Deposit Control in Alkaline Cooling Water Using Magnetic Water

Treatment at Amoco's Largest Refinery, CORROSION/84, National Association of Corro-sion Engineers, Houston, TX, Paper 330, 1984.

R.J. Szostak and D.A. Toy, Chem. Processing, (1985) 44.

J. Laureys, J. Van Muylder, and M. Pourbaix, Corr. Technol., 2(1) (1955) 1. J. Laureys, J. Van Muylder, and M. Pourbaix, Note sur l'efficacit6 d'un appareil de traitement magnetique des eaus, Technical Report 24, Centre

Beige d'Etude de la Corrosion (CEBELCOR), 1955. J. Laureys and M. Pourbaix,

Etude de procedes physiques antiincrustants, Technical Report 56, Centre Belge d'Etude de la Corrosion (CEBELCOR), 1957.

K.W. Busch and M.A. Busch, Laboratory Studies on Magnetic Water Treatment and Their

Relationship to a Possible Mechanism for Scale Reduction, Cranfield University, England, March 14, 1996.

K.W. Busch, M.A. Busch, R.E. Darling, J.L. McAtee, Jr. and D.H. Parker, Magnetic WaterTreatment Devices: The Results of a University

Study, Proc. of the 45th Annual Meeting of the International Water Conference, Paper No. IWC-84- 10, Pittsburgh, PA, 1984. K.W. Busch, M.A. Busch, R.E. Darling, J.L. McAtee, Jr. and D.H. Parker, Laboratory Studies

Involving Magnetic Water Treatment Devices, CORROSION/85, National Association of Corro-sion Engineers, Boston, MA, Paper No. 251, 1985.

K.W. Busch, M.A. Busch, R.E. Darling, D.H. Parker and J.L. McAtee, Jr., Corrosion, 42 (1986) D.H. Parker, An Investigation of the Role of

Magnetic Water Treatment Devices in Calcium Carbonate Scale Formation, M.S. Thesis, BaylorUniversity, 1985.

J.A. Shercliff, A Textbook of Magnetohydrody-namics, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965.

J.A. Shercliff, Flow-Measurement, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1962. N.C. Little, Magnetohydrodynamics, van Nostrand, Princeton, 1967.

S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability, Dover, New York, 1961. H.H. Uhlig, Corrosion and Corrosion Control, John Wiley, New York, 1963.

W.P. O'Brien, Jr., On the Use of Magnetic (and Electric and Ultrasonic) Fields for Controlling the Deposition of Scale in Water Systems: A Review of Several Papers Translated from Russian, Civil Engineering Laboratory of Port Hueneme, California, 1979.

Y.L. Novozhilov and B.S. Batalin, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zayed Stroit Arkhitekt, 11(1) 1968, 54.

V.A. Zubarev, Kolloidn. Zh., 33 (1970) 445. E.A. Duffy, Investigation of Magnetic Water Treatment Devices, Ph.D. Dissertation, CiemsonUniversity, 1977. R.E. Herzog, Q. Shi, J.N. Patil and J.L. Katz, Langmuir, 5 (1989), 861.

K.W. Busch, M.A. Busch, R.E. Darling, S. Maggard and S.W. Kubala, Trans. IChemE, in press. E. Tomb~icz,C. Ma, K.W. Busch and M.A. Busch,

Colloid Polymer Sci., 269 (1991) 278. [N.H.G. Penners and L.K. Koopal, Coll. Surfaces, 19 1986) 337. M. Ozaki, H. Suzuki, K. Takahashi and E. Matijevi6, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 113 (1986) 76.

U. Kallay and E. Matijevi6, Colloids and Surfaces,

J.J.Miles, R.W. Chantrell and M.R. Parker, J. App. Phys., 57 (1985) 4271.

E.J.W. Vervey and J.T.G. Overbeek, Theory of the Stability of Lyophobic Colloids, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1948.

J. Svoboda and J. Ofka, J. Colloid Interfac. Sci., 94 (1983) C. Ma, Investigation of the Effect of a Weak Magnetic Field on Hematite Sols, M.S. Thesis, Baylor University, 1992.

M.A. Busch, K.W. Busch, C. Ma, G. Sethuraman, and E. Tomb~icz, Influence of a Weak Magnetic Field on the Colloidal State of Several Materials in

Stationary and Flowing Systems, National Meeting of the American Chemical Society and Fourth

Chemical Congress of North America, New York City, Paper No. 160, 1991. G.D. Phillies, Anal. Chem, 62 (1990) 1049A.

S. Gopalakrishnan, An Investigation of Applied Fields on Colloidal Dispersions, Ph.D. Dissertation, Baylor University, 1993.

K.W. Busch, S. Gopalakrishnan, M.A. Busch and E. Tomb~cz,J. Colloid Interface Sci., 183 (1996) 528.

H. van Olphen, Clay Colloid Chemistry, Wiley, New York, 1963.

James M. Montgomery, Consulting Engineers, Water Treatment--Principles and Design, Wiley, New York, 1985.

A. Amirtharajah, M.M. Clark and R.R. Trussell, eds., Mixing in Coagulation and Flocculation,

Amer. Water Works Assoc. Research Foundation, Denver, 1991.

148 K. W. Busch, M.A. Busch~Desalination 109 (1997) 131-148

H.R. Kruyt, Colloid Science, Vol. 1, Elsevier, New York, 1952.

D.N. Sutherland,J. Colloid Interface Sci., 25 (1967)

S.G. Mason, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 58 (1977)

M.M. Clark and J.R.V. Flora, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 147 (1991) 407.

P. Somasundaran, Fine Particle Processing, Columbia University, New York, 1980.

[55] A.A. Potanin, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 145 (1991)

J.D.Pandiyaand L.A. Spielman, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 90 (1982) 517. J. Hartmann and F. Lazarus, Mathematisk-fysike.

 

Weitere wissenschaftliche Arbeiten, die sich über die physikalische und Ein-Wirkung von Magnetfelder auf Kalkmoleküle befassen:

Further water magnetization references from http://members.aol.com/JBainSI/References.htm

Aggregation and growth processes in thin films of magnetic fluid.
Cernak, J.; Macko, P.; Kasparkova, M. 1991 - Journal of Physics [ISSN 0022-3727], v24 p1609-15.

An effective correction to the theoretical curve of magnetobirefringence of magnetic fluid.
Yingtian Pan.; Xiande Liu.; Chongwu Du. 1992 - Journal of Applied Physics [ISSN 0021-8979], v71 p3937-9.


Antiscale magnetic pretreatment of reverse osmosis feedwater.
Baker, J.S.; Judd, S.J.; and Parsons, S.A. 1997 - Desalination [ISSN 0011-9164], v110 n1-2 p151-165.


Anti-scale Magnetic Treatment
Baker, J S. and Parsons, S A. (1996). , Water and Waste Treatment, 39, 36-38.


Application of magnetic separations in applied microbiology.
Safarik, I.; Safarikova, M.; Forsythe, S.J. 1995 - Journal of Applied Bacteriology [ISSN 0021-8847], v78 n6 p575-585.


Application-oriented characterization of Sm2Co,Fe,Cu,Zr17 permanent magnets.
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Art of scale reduction.
Marshutz, Scott. 1996 - Reeves Journal [ISSN 0048-7066], v76 n2 p3.


Attractions of magnetic wastewater treatment.
Annonymous. 1988 - Water Quality International [ISSN ????], v76 n2 p3.


Basic Study on Micromechanical System Using the Magnetic Fluid.
Kim, D.-W.; Shimooka, T.; Yuhta, T. 1995 - Seimitsu Kogakkai shi (Journal of the Japan Society of Precision Engineering) [ISSN 0912-0289], v61 n1 p112.


Benard convection in a non-linear magnetic fluid under the influence of a non-vertical magnetic field.
Abdullah, A. A.; Lindsay, K. A. 1991 - Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics [ISSN 0935-1175], v3 n1 p13-26.


Biological and biomedical aspects of magnetic fluid technology.
Roath, S. 1993 - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v122 n1-3 p329.


Chaos: New trend magnetic fluid research.
Cebers, A. 1993 - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v122 n1-3 p281.


Control Scale and Save Energy
Simpson. L. G. 1980. "." The Coast Guard Engineer's Digest , Volume 20, Number 205, pp. 32-35.


Convection in a non-uniformly stratified fluid permeated by a non-uniform magnetic field.
D. R.; Richardson, L. 1991 - Geophysical Journal International [ISSN 0956-540X], v104 n1 p203-212.


Deformation and Destruction of Aggregates in a Magnetic Fluid.
Martynov, S. I. 1990 - Magnetohydrodynamics [ISSN 0024-998X], v26 n2 p167.


Dispersity of Nickel and Its Interaction with Surfactant in Magnetic Fluid.
Vorobyova, S. A.; Lesnikovich, A. I.; Levchik, G. F.; Levchik, S. V.
1995 - International Riga Conference on Magnetohydrodynamics, 14th [Latvian Academy of Science. Institute of Physics. Jurmala, Latvia], p206-207.

Effect of high magnetic fields on the reverse electron transfer process in an a-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of phenothiazine-viologen chain-linked compound
Fujiwara, Y.; Aoki, T.; Yoda, K.; Hong, C.; Mukai, M.; Haino, T.; Fukazawa, Y.; Tanimoto, Y.; Yonemura, H.; Matsuo, T.; and Okazaki, M. 1996 - Chemical Physics Letters [ISSN 0009-2614], v256 n3-4 p361-367.


Effect of irrigation with magnetically treated water on the translocation of minerals in the soil.
Noran, Rami.; Shani, Uri.; Lin, Israel. 1996 - MAGN ELECTR SEP [ISSN 1055-6915], v7 n2 p109-122.


Effect of magnetic field on particle aggregation of a magnetic fluid in a pipe flow.
Shimada, K.; Iwabuchi, M.; Kamiyama, S.; Sato, A. 1997 - Experimental Heat Transfer Fluid Mechanics and Thremodynamics - World Conference - 1997 [ISBN 8846700147], v3 p1609-1614.


Effect of Magnetic Fields on the Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate
A-Barrett R, Parsons S A, Hillis P and Coetzee P P., WISA '98, Cape Town, May, 1998.


Effect of magnetic treatment on Gulf seawater.
Al-Qahtani, Haitham. 1996 - Desalination [ISSN 0011-9164], v107 n1 p75-81.


Effect of Vertical Magnetic Field on the Fluid Flow of Silicon Melt and on the Concentration Profile of Oxygen in the Czochralski System.
Yi, K.-W.; Watanabe, M.; Kakimoto, K.; Eguchi, M. 1994 - Extended Abstracts - Electrochemical Society [ISBN 1566770815], v1 p429-430.


Effective correction to the theoretical curve of magnetobirefringence of magnetic fluid.
Yingtian, Pan; Xiande, Liu; Chongwu, Du; Zaiguang, Li. 1992 - Journal of Applied Physics [ISSN 0021-8979], v71 n8 p3937-3939.


Effectiveness of a magnetized water oral irrigator (Hydro Floss) on plaque, calculus and gingival health.
Johnson KE; Sanders JJ; Gellin RG; Palesch YY 1998 J Clin Periodontol, 1998 Apr, 25:4, 316-21


Effects of anti-scale apparatus on hard water [Orignial Title: Les effects d'un appareil magnetique "anti-tartre" sur les eaux incrustantes].
Ferreux, M.; Remy, F.; Vidonne, A. 1991 - Technical Scientific Methods [ISSN ????], v86 n4 p201-203.


Effects of the magnetic field on a non-Newtonian conducting fluid past a stretching plate.
Helmy, K. A. 1994 - Canadian Journal of Physics [ISSN 0008-4204], v72 n5/6 p290.


Effects of magnetic field on water investigated with fluorescent probes.
Higashitani, K., Oshitani, J. and Ohmura, N. 1996 - Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects [ISSN 0927-7757], v109 p167-173.


Equilibrium of a Drop of a Magnetic Fluid in the Field of a Rectangular Magnet.
Raikher, Yu. L.; Sosnin, P. A.; Korovin, V. M.; Pshenichnikov, A. F. 1993 - Magnetohydrodynamics [ISSN 0024-998X], v28 n4 p340-345.


Estimation of the yield stress of a magnetic fluid from flow curves.
Matsuno, Y.; Itoh, J. 1995 - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v149 n1/2 p22-25.

Evaluation of the Principles of Magnetic Water Treatment,
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Examination to Determine the Physical or Chemical Differences Between Untreated and Magnetically Treated Water
Schmutzer, M. A., and G. W. Hull.
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Crolet, J.-L.; Ledion, J. 1988 - Technical Scientific Methods [ISSN ????], v83 n9 p435-442.


Experimental Study of the Flux Control Characteristics of a Magnetic Fluid Controlled by a Parallel or Orthogonal Magnetic Field.
Oka, Hideo. 1993 - Electrical Engineering in Japan [ISSN 0424-7760], v113 n2 p65-79.


Experimental Study of the Transition in a Nonstabilized Flow of a Conductive Fluid in a Tube Placed in the Longitudinal Magnetic Field.
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Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) Software System
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Fundamental theory for hydrodynamics of magnetic fluid.
Ido, Y.; Tanahashi, T.; Kiya, M. 1992 - International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics in Materials [ISSN 0925-2096], v3 n3 p183-192.


Growing attraction of magnetic treatment.
Spear, M. 1992 - Process Engineering [ISSN 0370-1859], v73 n5 p143-144.


High gradient magnetic filtration for waste water treatment.
Van Velsen, Lood F.-M.; Nymegen, Smit; Boersma, Rint. 1991 - Mines Carrieres Technical 1991 [ISSN 0999-5714], p67.


How to study antiscale process (Original Title: Les methodologies d'etudes des procedes antitartre).
Rosset, R. 1993 - Technical Scientific Methods [ISSN 0299-7258], v88 n11 p563-569.


Hydrodynamic Resistance of Pipelines with a Magnetic Fluid Coating.
Krakov, M. S.; Maskalik, E. S.; Medvedev, V. F. 1990 - Fluid Dynamics [ISSN 0015-4628], v24 n5 p715.


Hydrostatics and oscillatory flows of magnetic fluid under a nonuniform magnetic field.
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Inference of geometrical analogy between magnetic domain alignment in fabricated ferromagnets and fluid flow.
Tay, C. Y. 1993 - Journal of Materials Science [ISSN 0022-2461], v28 n9 p2405.


Influence of magnetic fields on calcium carbonate precipitation
A-Barrett R and Parsons S A, (1998). Water. Res.,32, 609-612 .

Interaction of Superparamagnetic and Non-superparamagnetic Particles in Magnetic Fluid.
Jeyadevan, B; Nakatsuka, K. 1995 - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v149 n1-2 p60.


Interfacial phenomena of magnetic fluid in moving container.
Sudo, Seiichi.; Ohaba, Motoyoshi.; Katagiri, Kazunari.; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki. 1997 - Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu [ISSN 0387-5016], v63 n606 p424-430.


Laboratory studies on magnetic water treatment and their relationship to a possible mechanism for scale reduction.
Busch, K.W.; Busch, M.A. 1997 - Desalination [ISSN 0011-9164], v109 n2 p131-148.


Magnetic amelioration of scale formation.
Baker, J.S. and Judd, S.J. 1996 - Water Research [ISSN 0043-1354], v30 n2 p247-260.


Magnetic Fluid Dynamics of Blood Flow.
Haik, Y.; Ching Jen Chen; Pai, V. 1996 - Engineering Mechanics - Conference [ISBN 0784401721], v1 p458-461.


Magnetic fluid flow in a two-dimensional channel.
Matsuno, Y.; Araki, K.; Yamamoto, H. 1993 - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v122 n1-3 p204.


Magnetic microparticles in water treatment.
Kolarik, L.O.; Anderson, N.J.; Bolto, B.A.; Chin, C.T.; Priestley, A.J. 1994 - Water Supply [ISSN 0735-1917], v12 n3-4 p253-262.


Magnetic particle technology: Desalination and water reuse applications.
Bolto, B.A. 1996 - Desalination [ISSN 0011-9164], v106 n1-3 p137-143.


Magnetic properties of laboratory synthesized magnetic fluid and their temperature dependence.
Mehta, R. V.; Upadhyay, R. V.; Dasannacharya, B. A.; Goyal, P. S.; Rao, K. S. 1994 - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v132 n1-3 p153.


Magnetic treatment of calcium carbonate scale -- effect of pH control.
Parsons, S.A.; Wang, Bao-Lung.; Judd, S.J.; Stephenson, T. 1997 - Water Resources [ISSN 0043-1354], v31 n2 p339-342.


Magnetic Treatment of Water
Hibben, S.G. 1973. . Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense.


Magnetic treatment of water - a theoretical quantum model.
Srebrenik, S.; Nadiv, S.; Lin, I.J. 1993 - MAGN ELECTR SEP [ISSN 1055-6915], v5 n2 p71-91.


Magnetic treatment of water: possible mechanisms and conditions for applications.
Kochmarsky, V. 1996 - MAGN ELECTR SEP [ISSN 1055-6915], v7 n2 p77-107.


Magnetic Water Treatment A Coming Attraction?
Fryer, L. 1995. "" E-Source , TU-95-7


Magnetically augmented water treatment
Parsons, S A, Wang, B L, Udol, S, Judd, S J. and Stephenson, T. (1997). . Trans. IChemE (Part B), 74, 98 - 106.

Magnetically-enhanced chemical disinfection.
Ifill, A.S.; Baker, J.S.; Judd, S.J. 1996 - PROCESS SAF ENVIRON PROT TRANS INST CHEM ENG PART B [ISSN 0957-5820], v74 n2 p120-124.


Magnetically treated water can be distinguished from untreated water using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Hiroshi Tachibana

Magneto-dielectric behaviour of concentrated magnetic fluid.
Kopcansky, P; Macko, P; Koneracka, M; Zavisova, V. 1996 - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v157-158 p587.


Magnetodynamic Stability of a Fluid Cylinder under the Lundquist Force-Free Magnetic Field.
Radwan, Ahmed E.; Halawa, Mohamed A. 1990 - Astrophysics and Space Science [ISSN 0004-640X], v166 n2 p183.


Magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow of water at 4 degree C through a porous medium.
Takhar, H.S.; Ram, P.C. 1994 - International Communication Heat Mass Tranver [ISSN 0735-1933], v21 n3 p371-376

.
Management of scale deposits by diamagnetism. Scale formation by calcium carbonate.
Martin, D.F.; Huang, H.; Martin, B.B.; Benson, R.F. 1995 - Journal of Environmental Science and Health [ISSN 0360-1266], vA30 n10 p2243-2253.


Mitigation of Heat Exchanger Scaling by Magnetic Treatment Devices.
Wilson D I and Parsons S A. (1997) 5th UK National Heat Transfer Conference.


Natural minerals in water treatment.
Spevakova, I. 1995 - International Water & Irrigation Review [ISSN 0334-5807], v15 n1 p6.


"Negative Viscosity" Effect in a Magnetic Fluid.
Bacri, J-C; Perzynski, R; Shliomis, M I; Burde, G I. 1995 - Physical Review Letters [ISSN 0031-9007], v75 n11 p21-28.


"Negative Viscosity" in a Magnetic Fluid.
Rosensweig, Ronald E. 1996 - Science [ISSN 0036-8075], v271 p614-15.


Nonchemical Approach to Hard Water Scale, Corrosion and White Rust Control.
Quinn, C.J., T.C. Molden, and C.W. Sanderson. 1996. "" In Proceedings Iron and Steel Engineer , Chicago IL, September 30, 1996.


Numerical simulation of free convection in magnetic fluid at magnetodiffusion.
Chukhrov, A. Y. 1992 - Transport Process in Engineering [ISBN 0444893946], v2 p965-974.


On general transformations and variational principles for the magnetohydrodynamics of ideal fluids.
Vladimirov, V.A.; Moffatt, H.K. 1995 - Journal of Fluid Mechanics [ISSN 0022-1120], v283 p125-139.

On the determination of the magnetisation decay of a magnetic fluid whose complex-susceptibility data fits a Cole-Davidson plot.
Fannin, P. C.; Charles, S. W. 1995 - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v149 n1/2 p79-83.

On the hydrodynamic theory of a magnetic liquid.
Mryglod, I M; Folk, R. 1996 - Physica A [ISSN 0378-4371], v234 n1-2 p129.


On the low-Reynolds number magnetic fluid flow in a helical pipe.
Verma, P. D. S.; Ram, Paras. 1993 - International Journal of Engineering Science [ISSN 0020-7225], v31 n2 p229.


On the viscosity of a magnetic fluid.
Wagh, D K; Avashia, A. 1996 - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v153 n3 p359.


Particle size distribution of a laboratory-synthesized magnetic fluid.
Upadhyay, R. V.; Sutariya, G. M.; Mehta, R. V. 1993 - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v123 n3 p262.


Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Type Water Treatment Devices
Gruber and Carda. 1981 South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. Sponsored by and protocol by Water Quality Association.


Polarised neutron scattering from the surface and bulk of magnetic fluid.
Lebedev, V T; Gordeev, G P; Axelrod, L A; Lazebnik, I M; Torok, Gy; Cser, L; Rosta, L. 1997 - Physica B [ISSN 0921-4526], v234-236 p525.


Polyampholytes for water treatment with magnetic particles.
Anderson, N.J.; Bolto, B.A.; Eldridge, R.J.; Jackson, M.B. 1993 - React Polymers [ISSN 0923-1137], v19 n1-2 p87-95.


Properties of diamagnetic fluid in high gradient magnetic fields.
Ueno, S.; Iwasaka, M. 1994 - Journal of Applied Physics [ISSN 0021-8979], v75 n10 p7177-7179.


Quantitative Assessment of the Effectiveness of Permanent Magnet Water
Alleman, J. 1985.  Conditioning Devices . Purdue University. Sponsored by and protocol by Water Quality Association.


Rate of Change of Vorticity Covariance in Dusty Fluid Turbulence in the Presence of Magnetic Field.
Dixit, T. 1990 - Astrophysics and Space Science [ISSN 0004-640X], v165 n1 p169.


Recent Developments of Technology in Magnetic Fluid Experiments.
Kamiyama, Shinichi; Okubo, Masaaki; Fujisawa, Fumio. 1992 - Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science [ISSN 0894-1777], v5 n5 p641-651.


Reduction of soluble mineral concentrations in CaSO4 saturated water using a magnetic field.
Gehr, R.; Zhai, Z.A.; Finch, J.A.; and Rao, S.R. 1995 - Water Resources [ISSN 0043-1354], v29 n3 p933-940.


Relationship between water qualities and treatments in the ultra pure water production system.
Okouchi, S.; Yamanaka, K.; Ishihara, Y.; Yanaka, T.; Uedaira, H. 1994 - Water Quality International '94 [ISSN 0273-1223], v30 n10 p237-241.


Removal of phosphate from waters by precipitation and high gradient magnetic separation.
Shaikh, A.M.H.; Dixit, S.G. 1992 - Water Resources [ISSN 0043-1354], v26 n6 p845-852.

Review of magnetic induced polarization with a special reference to its applicability to environmental restoration problems.
Jin, D.J. 1992 - Journal of Hazardous Materials [ISSN ????], v30 n1 p39-58.


Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model for Fluid Flow and Enthalpy Dispersion Under Influence of Strong External Magnetic Fields.
Johansen, S. T.; Gu, L. 1994 - Electromagnetic Processing of Materials [Iron and Steel Institute, Tokyo], 1st International symposium, Nagoya,Japan, p49-54.


Role of zinc in magnetic and other physical water treatment methods for the prevention of scale.
Coetzee, P.P.; Yacoby, M.; Howell, S. 1996 - Water S.A. [ISSN 0378-4738], v22 n4 p319-326.


Scientific Definition of the Magnetic Treatment of Water: Its Subsequent Use in Preventing Scale Formation and Removing Scale.
Marth, R.A. 1997. Research Conducted for Descal-A-Matic Corporation.


Sewage treatment process using highly condensed activated sludge with an apparatus for magnetic separation.
Sakai, Y.; Terakado, T.; Takahashi, F. 1994 - Journal of Ferment. Bioengineering [ISSN 0922-338X], v78 n1 p120-122.


Simultaneous removal of organic and nitrogen compounds in intermittently aerated activated sludge process using magnetic separation.
Sakai, Y.; Miama, T.; and Takahashi, F. 1997 - Water Research [ISSN 0043-1354], v31 n8 p2113-2116.

Some effects of a magnetic field on the flow of a Newtonian fluid through a circular tube.
Mazumdar, H P; Ganguly Habishyasi, U N; Venkatesan, S K. 1996 - Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics [ISSN 0019-5588], v27 n5 p519.

Stability of stratified fluid in the presence of suspended particles and variable magnetic field.
Sharma, R. C.; Singh, Bakshis. 1990 - Journal of Mathematical and Physical Sciences [ISSN 0047-2557], v24 n1 p49.

State-of-the-art techniques in reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and electrodialysis in drinking water supply. National report: UK.
Foster, M.W. 1996 - Water Supply [ISSN 0735-1917], v14 n3-4 p319-320.

Steady flow past a circular cylinder coated with magnetic fluid: flow structure, drag reduction and coating deformation.
Krakov, Mikhail S.; Kamiyama, Shinichi. 1995 - Journal of Fluid Mechanics [ISSN 0022-1120], v295 p1-22.

Steady-state Current Density Represented by a Velocity Vector Potential in an Inhomogeneous Electron Fluid in a Magnetic Field.
Freeman, Gordon R.; March, Norman H. 1994 - Physics and Chemistry of Liquids [ISSN 0031-9104], v26 n4 p281.

Streamlining of an Infinite Cylinder by a Viscous Conducting Fluid in a Longitudinal Magnetic Field for Various Values of Magnetic Permeability.
Murzenko, V. V. 1992 - Magnetohydrodynamics [ISSN 0024-998X], v28 n1 p11-17.

Studies of a Water Treatment Device That Uses Magnetic Fields
Busch, K. W., M. A. Busch, D. H. Parker, R. E. Darling, and J. L. McAtee, Jr. 1986. "," In Proceedings Corrosion /85, Boston MA.

Thermodynamic Relations for a Magnetic Fluid.
Yamaguchi, H.; Kobori, I. 1993 - Magnetohydrodynamics [ISSN 0024-998X], v29 n1 p50-56.

To Determine if Magnetic Water Treatment is Effective in Preventing Scale
Rubin, A.J. 1973. . The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Total Free Energy of a Magnetized Body within a Magnetic Fluid in the Presence of a Field.
Korovin, V. M. 1991 - Magnetohydrodynamics [ISSN 0024-998X], v26 n3 p295.

Trends in water filtration technology.
Boller, M. 1994 - Aqua [ISSN 0003-7214], v43 n2 p65-75.

Trends of magnetic fluid applications in Japan.
Nakatsuka, K. 1993 - Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v122 n1-3 p387.

Turbulence modification in pipe flows of a conductive fluid using parallel magnetic fields.
Lin, T. F. 1995 - Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows [Penn State, University Park, PA], v2 pP2-49-P2-54.

Uniform Dispersion of Fine Particles in a Magnetic Fluid and its Evaluation. I
Horizoe, Masanori; Itoh, Ryuzo; Gotoh, Keishi. 1995 - Advanced Powder Technology Journal [ISSN 0921-8831], v6 n2 p139.

Uniform Dispersion of Fine Particles in a Magnetic Fluid and its Evaluation. II
Horizoe, Masanori; Itoh, Ryuzo; Gotoh, Keishi. 1994 - Funtai Kogaku Kaishi [ISSN 0386-6157], v31 n3 p151.

Unsteady flow of a viscous fluid between two parallel disks with a time varying gap width and a magnetic field.
Kumari, M; Takhar, H S; Nath, G. 1995 - International Journal of Engineering Science [ISSN 0020-7225], v3 n6 p781.

Use of magnetic fields for water softening [Original Title: Wasserenthaertung im Magnetield].
Lohmeyer, S. 1992 - Galvanotechnik [ISSN 0016-4232], v83 n9 p3083-3094.

Using magnetic fields to prevent scale.
Benson, Robert F.; Carpenter, Roland K.; Martin, Barbara B.; Martin, Dean F. 1997 - ChemTech [ISSN 0009-2703], v27 n4 p34-38.

Utilization of magnetic fluids for water treatment from petroleum products.
Dvorchik, S.E.; Reutsky, S.Yu.; Svizher, A.Ya. 1992 - KHIM TEKHNOL VODY. [ISSN 0204-3556], v14 n9 p706-712.

Yield Stress of a Magnetic Fluid in a Magnetic Field.
Zyricheva, E. N.; Kiryushin, V. V. 1992 - Fluid Dynamics [ISSN 0015-


Happiness is a Magnet
Concar, David. , New Scientist, August 5, 1995, pp. 24-29

A stroke for swimmersCoghlan, Andy. New .Scientist, April 25, 1998, p. 21

Magnetised water is no mystery.
Lake, Rhody. Alive, #148, January l995, pp. 12-14


Magnetic water treatment: Attempts of objective explanation
Nafalski, Andrzcj, et al. . International Conference ELMECO '94. Electromagn. Devices Processes Environ. Prot., Proceedings, 1994, pp. 161-65

Magnetic treatment of water: Possible mechanisms and conditions for applications.
Kochmarsky, V. Magnetic and Electrical Separation, Vol. 7, 1996, pp. 77-107

Experimental Evidence for Effects of Magnetic Fields on Moving Water, 1984 Institute of Electric and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), Dr. Klaus J. Kronenberg,  Conference  Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. Mag-21, No. 5, September 1985, pages 2059-2061

Magnetic water treatment demystified. (paper courtesy of Teldon of Canada Ltd.) Kronenberg, Klaus J.

Magnetised: What makes treating water with magnets so alluring Aqua Magazine, August 1993, pp. 20-24 Kronenberg, Klaus J.

Magnetised II: More alluring facts about treating water with magnets. Aqua Magazine, September 1993, 20-23 Kronenberg, Klaus J.

The analysis of water using intrinsic data fields. A paper presented to the Institute for Advanced Water Sciences Research, October 1997 Narvaez, Thomas.

The ultrasonic detection of structural changes in water after endogenous bioelectromagnetic field treatment. Second Annual Advanced Water Sciences Symposium, Dallas, Texas. October 4-6, 1996(paper courtesy of Hippocampus Institute, Budapest, Hungary) Yakovkin, V, et al.

Towards a biophysics of homeopathy. (paper courtesy of Hippocampus Institute, Budapest, Hungary), Zhalko-Tytarenko, Olga, et al. T

Endogenous electromagnetic field influence on the free energy of hydrogen bond formation in water. 2nd Advanced Water Sciences Symposium, Dallas, Texas, October 4-6, 1996. Proceedings, pp. 23-27 Zhalko-Tytarenko, Olga, et al.
Effect of oral irrigation with a magnetic water treatment device on plaque and calculus.
Watt DL, Rosenfelder C, Sutton CD 1993 J Clin Periodontol  May;20(5):314-7